Key scientific research has supported the inclusion of 100 percent juice in a healthy diet for several reasons. Click on the topic below to find the supporting information.
Review of Scientific Evidence
Juice and Fruit Intake / Consumption Data
Juice and Nutrient Intake
Childhood and Adolescent Juice Intake and Diet Quality
Juice and Weight Gain
Juice and Dental Health
A detailed synopsis of recent research by categorized by publication can be viewed here.
Review of the Scientific Evidence
An overview of the science looking at current 100 percent fruit juice consumption levels, nutrient content, juice production, diet quality and health, fruit juice and cognition, fruit juice related to cost and income level and fruit juice and weight status was published in Advances in Nutrition.
- Overall conclusion is that 100 percent fruit juice has many health benefits and plays an important role in helping individuals meet fruit recommendations without impact on energy intake or food costs.
Juice and Fruit Intake
Americans are not meeting the daily fruit consumption goals. By supplementing their diet with 100 percent juice; consumers are more likely to meet these standards.
- Research published in Nutrition Journal found that typical total fruit consumption is about 65 percent whole fruit compared to 35 percent fruit juice, with children not typically over consuming juice, consuming less than one-half cup of juice per day.
- These same consumption patterns show that race/ethnicity, education, and income gradients effected whole fruit versus 100 percent fruit juice consumption. For those segments of the population who are unable to afford whole fresh fruit, 100 percent fruit juice offers a convenient, affordable, and nutrient-dense option that can help them meet recommended dietary goals.
According to modeling data conducted for the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, children 2-5 yrs. of age do not over-consume juice, and intakes are within the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines.
- AAP guidelines recommend 4- 6 ounces for ages 1-6 years of age and 8-12 ounces for 7-18 years of age.
- Among children ages 4-8 years old and 9-13 years old, fruit intake comprises both 100 percent juice and whole fruit, with the majority of intake consisting of whole fruit.
- Among middle-aged and older adults, most of fruit intake is also from whole fruit, albeit below recommended levels, rather than 100 percent juice.
Juice Intake and Diet Quality
Research published in the International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition, Public Health Nutrition, American Journal of Health Promotion , and Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine analyzed data on diet quality of juice drinkers
- Juice drinkers generally had higher levels of important vitamins and nutrients including vitamins C and B6, folate, potassium, magnesium and iron. This is particularly important for potassium which was singled out as a nutrient of concern by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines due to low intakes.
- Consumption of juice was also associated with lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, discretionary fat, and added sugars and with higher intakes of whole fruit.
- Total fiber intake among juice-drinkers was either the same or higher than non-juice drinkers.
- Compared to non-juice drinkers, drinking 100 percent juice is not associated with weight gain in children or adolescents.
- In 100 percent juice drinkers showed better nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality than non-consumers, indicating that 100 percent juice is a healthful, nutrient dense beverage.
- Compared to their non-fruit juice drinking counterparts, consumers of 100 percent fruit juice scored higher total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (HEI).
According to a study from the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, juice consumption did not replace milk in the diet of elementary and middle school aged children.
- This study looked at beverage patterns of a nationally representative sample of more than 7,400 children over a three year period from 5th to 8th grade.
- They found milk consumption was positively associated with juice consumption, so if children increased their milk consumption they also increased their juice consumption.
Juice and Nutrient Intake
A review of scientific research published in Advances in Nutrition provides evidence suggesting 100 percent juice contains bioactive plant components with the potential to positively affect human health.
- The study specifically looks at apple, cranberry, grape, grapefruit, orange, and pomegranate 100 percent fruit juice intake.
- Juice intake is linked to protective effects on cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognition, hypertension, inflammation, oxidation, platelet function, urinary tract infection, and vascular reactivity.
A review in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry finds that orange juice processing can increase the bioaccessibility of nutrients.
- This research found processing fruit into juice made certain nutrients, vitamin C and carotenoid more accessible for the body to absorb.
- Levels of vitamin C and carotenoid levels were slightly decreased, compared to whole fruit, but at the same time significantly increased the bioaccessibility of these two nutrients, making them more available to be absorbed by the body.
Weight Gain and Juice Consumption
An in-depth critical systematic review conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics which looked at research from 1995-2013 was published in Critical Reviews of Food Science and Nutrition .
- The study found drinking 100 percent juice was not associated with weight status in children.
- It also found children consuming 100 percent juice had higher intake and adequacy of dietary fiber, vitamin C, magnesium and potassium.
A recent review of the scientific literature, entitled Childhood Obesity and the Consumption of 100 percent Fruit Juice: Where are the evidence-based findings? analyzed the relationship between 100 percent fruit juice consumption and children looked at diet quality, weight status, nutrient intake and nutrient status.
- The authors concluded that the weight of the evidence shows no relationship between consuming 100 percent juice and childhood obesity and weight gain in nationally representative studies.
- Furthermore, 100 percent juice drinkers showed better nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality than non-consumers, indicating that 100 percent juice is a healthful, nutrient dense beverage.
Fruit and vegetable juice did not result in weight gain in children and adolescents according to a study published in Childhood Obesity. The results showed that juice intake may have a positive effect on weight.
- This study assessed diet over a 12-year period found that fruit and vegetable juice intake was not associated with weight gain and in fact, was found to have protective effect.
- Subjects (boys and girls at 15-17 years of age) that drink the most fruit and vegetable juice had smaller waist sizes than those who drank the least amount.
- These results suggest that adequate intakes of fruit and vegetable juice may reduce the risk of excess body fat in later childhood and adolescence.
A review published in the American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine assessed the relationship between consumption of 100 percent fruit juice by children and adolescents in 9 cross-sectional studies and 12 longitudinal studies.
- The overall conclusion is that there is no systematic association between consumption of 100 percent fruit juice and overweight in children and adolescents. Mean consumption of 100 percent fruit juice by children and adolescents was well within the recommendations for the American Academy of Pediatrics and MyPyramid.
- Data supports the consumption of 100 percent fruit juice consumption in moderate amounts and suggest that consumption of 100 percent fruit juice may be an important strategy to help children meet the current recommendations for fruit
A study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition at the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome in adult 100 percent fruit juice drinkers compared to non-fruit juice drinkers.
- Compared to non-juice drinkers, those who consumed 100 percent fruit juice were leaner, more insulin sensitive, and had lower odds of obesity and metabolic syndrome.
- They also found that moderate intakes of 100 percent fruit juice are associated with more healthful lifestyles than no consumption of fruit juice.
Juice Consumption and Dental Health
Analysis in the Journal of the American Dental Association found no association between 100 percent juice and dental caries.
- The results of these findings are consistent with those of other studies and show that consumption of 100 percent fruit juice is not associated with early childhood caries.
A recent study in Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, looking at African-American children aged 3 – 22 months found a lower incidence of dental caries was associated with greater frequency in consumption of 100 percent fruit juice.
- The mean frequency in consumption of 100 percent juice was approximately 2 times per day. Results from this study showed that children who consumed 100 percent juice one more time per day had approximately 60 percent lower odds of developing dental caries for the 3-year incidence of early early childhood caries, compared to those who consumed 100 percent juice less frequently per day.