Research on 100% Juice Published in 2015


New research on 100% Juice has been released in 2015. The peer-reviewed reseach ranges from a variety of topics covering  juice and nutrients in the diet to the socioeconomic impact of juice consumption.

Visit the Latest Scientific Research page to view the studies by topic.


Replacing 100% Fruit Juice with Whole Fruit Results in a Trade Off of Nutrients in the Diets of Children

Author: Nicklas T.A., O’Neil C.E. and Fulgoni V.

October 2015/Current Nutrition and Food Science

This study conducted two modeling strategies to evaluate nutrient intake and  dietary impact of replacing 100% fruit juice with whole fruit in children ages 2-18 using the national NHANES  2007-2010 consumption data.  Model one replaced 100% fruit juice with a composite of the top 20 most commonly consumed whole fruit.  Model 2 replaced individual 100% fruit juice with the same fruit. The data showed replacing 100% fruit juice with whole fruit resulted in no difference in energy intake and no difference in 85% of nutrients (17 out of 20). Of the three nutrients affect — vitamin C, fiber and total sugars — vitamin C significantly decreased in both models; dietary fiber slightly increased by one gram and only in Model 2; total sugars decreased significantly by a small amount (6 grams or 24 kcalories) only in Model 1.

Key Findings: Overall, fruit juice is nutritionally similar to whole fruit with a “trade-off” for vitamin C for fiber and total sugars and is an easy and important way to help children meet USDA Dietary recommendations.  The study also mentions that 100% juice drinkers significantly consume more whole fruit and have better quality diets than non-juice drinkers.

Consumption of 100% Fruit Juice is Associated with Better Nutrient Intake and Diet Quality but not with Weight Status in Children: NHANES 2007-2010

Author: Nicklas T. et. al

May 2015/International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

This cross-sectional study examined the impact of various levels of 100% fruit juice (FJ) consumption on intake of nutrients, diet quality, and weight in children 2-18 years of age, using the most recent national data. The data was based on Healthy Eating Index scores and 24-hour dietary recall data. Average per capita consumption of 100% FJ consumed was 3.6 fl oz (50 kilocalories; 2.9% energy intake); 30% of children 2-6 years exceeded the recommendation for 100% FJ. Among 100% FJ consumers, the mean amount of 100% FJ consumed was 10.6 fl oz (147 kilocalories; 8.4% energy intake). Juice drinkers had higher intakes of vitamin C, magnesium, and potassium and overall higher diet quality. They also had lower intakes of total fat, saturated fat, sodium and added sugar and consumed significantly more whole fruit than non-consumers; no difference was found in total fiber intake and no trends were seen in weight with increased amounts of 100% FJ consumed.

Key Findings: Consumption of 100% FJ should be recommended as a component of a healthy diet and was associated with better nutrient intake and diet quality and was not associated with body weight/adiposity in a nationally representative sample of children.

Commentary:  100% Fruit Juice Perspectives Amid the Sugar Debate

Author: Gail Rampersaud

April 2015/Public Health Nutrition

Review of the research on 100% fruit juice related to body weight and adiposity in children and adults, risk of type 2 diabetes, and nutritional impact on the diet. Paper concluded that there is no consistent evidence on 100% juice adverse on weight and risk of type 2 diabetes.  Also notes that 100% fruit juice is associated with higher quality diets and better nutrient intake for several key nutrients.

Key Findings:  Intake of 100% fruit juice has no adverse effect on health conditions often associated with excess sugar or fructose intake. One hundred percent fruit juice is associated with positive findings related to diet quality and nutrient intake.

Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice

Author: Clemens R., et. al.

March 2015/Advances in Nutrition

Overview of the science looking at current 100% fruit juice consumption levels, nutrient content, juice production, diet quality and health, fruit juice consumption and cognition, fruit juice related to cost and income level and fruit juice and weight status.  The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and bioactives, which can improve the quality of the diet, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations.

Key findings: Overall conclusion is that 100% fruit juice is associated with many health benefits and plays an important role in helping individuals meet fruit recommendations without impact on energy intake or food costs.

Socioeconomic gradient in consumption of whole fruit and 100% fruit juice among US children and adults.

Authors: Drewnowski A and Rehm C.

January 2015/Nutrition Journal

Total fruit consumption falls far short of national goals, in fact, more than 85% of the population is not meeting recommended amounts. General fruit consumption patterns show whole fruit provides about 65% (2/3’rds) of total fruit while 100% juice provides about 35% (1/3). These findings show 100% juice does not displace fruit in the diet and is not typically over consumed – even among children (the largest consumers of juice).  Consumption patterns for whole fruit versus 100% fruit juice showed different gradients by race/ethnicity, education, and income. Total fruit and whole fruit consumption was generally higher among those with higher incomes or more education. The advice to replace 100% juice with whole fruit may pose a challenge for the economically disadvantaged and some minority groups, whose fruit consumption falls short of national goals. For those segments of the population who are unable to afford whole fresh fruit, 100% fruit juice offers a convenient, affordable, and nutrient-dense option that can help them meet recommended dietary goals.

Key Findings:  Fruit Juice not overconsumed, falls into a two parts whole fruit, one part juice pattern, whole fruit influenced by socioeconomics and may pose challenge for low income population. One hundred percent juice fills the gap.

A Review and Critical Analysis of the Scientific Literature Related to 100% Fruit Juice and Human Health.

Author: Hyson, DA

January 2015/Advances in Nutrition

The current review summarizes nearly two decades (1995-2012) worth of research data on 100% fruit juice and human health and provides evidence suggesting 100% juice contains bioactive components with the potential to positively affect human health. Specifically apple, cranberry, grape, grapefruit, orange, and pomegranate 100% fruit juice intake have been linked to protective effects on cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognition, hypertension, inflammation, oxidation, platelet function, urinary tract infection, and vascular reactivity.

Key Finding:  Fruit Juice benefits can potentially go beyond vitamins and minerals and may have positive effects on health outcomes.

Full Synopsis can be downloaded here: Research on 100 Percent Juice 2015